By Stuart B. Schwartz
It would appear unlikely that one could discover tolerant spiritual attitudes in Spain, Portugal, and the hot international colonies in the course of the period of the Inquisition, whilst enforcement of Catholic orthodoxy used to be common and brutal. but this groundbreaking publication does precisely that. Drawing on a big physique of ancient evidence—including files of the Inquisition itself—the historian Stuart Schwartz investigates the assumption of non secular tolerance and its evolution within the Hispanic international from 1500 to 1820. targeting the attitudes and ideology of universal humans instead of these of highbrow elites, the writer unearths that no small section of the inhabitants believed in freedom of judgment of right and wrong and rejected the specific validity of the Church. The ebook explores a variety of assets of tolerant attitudes, the demanding situations that the recent international offered to non secular orthodoxy, the complicated kinfolk among “popular” and “learned” tradition, and lots of comparable subject matters. the quantity concludes with a dialogue of the relativist principles that have been taking carry in other places in Europe in this era. (20081101)
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Extra resources for All Can Be Saved: Religious Tolerance and Salvation in the Iberian Atlantic World
The campaign against simple fornication was essentially ideological, directed against thoughts rather than actions. The Inquisition came to fear, and rightly so, that freethinking about sex might be linked to other heterodox attitudes or to heresies. ≥Ω Such groups, along with peasants and artisans, were the most likely to be prosecuted for these ideas. ∂≠ In fact, claims of ignorance and drunkenness were the best defenses thrown up by those accused, and surely this was a well-known fact. ∂∞ People holding ideas on sex not approved by the Church became a regular feature of autos de fe in the second half of the sixteenth century throughout the Hispanic world.
This scene of an auto de fe by Francisco Rizzi (1614–85) with the king and the court in attendance captures the impressive ritual and majesty of these public ceremonies, in which the accused were reconciled to the Church and in which the religious role of various groups in society was represented. Courtesy of Museo del Prado, Madrid. Propositions 21 early modern Spain and Portugal, the Inquisition had the power to censure and prosecute its critics and opponents. While all of these ideas might be suspect because of their implied deviancy from dogma or their potential deﬁance of the authority of the Church and the Inquisition, the inquisitors tended to deal differentially with them.
In a way, the blasphemers seemed to have a profound faith, and in the midst of life’s disappointments, their inversion of belief was a way of expressing the very depth of their despair or their integration of the divine into all aspects of their life. ∞∞ Statements against the Church and its ofﬁcers also tended to be treated rather lightly in most cases, so long as no real challenge to the Church’s authority was implied. It was not uncommon to express doubts that confession to a priest who was living in sin with a woman, who sought sexual contact with his ‘‘daughters of confession,’’ or who could be seen drunk in the local tavern was a sacrament of any value.
All Can Be Saved: Religious Tolerance and Salvation in the Iberian Atlantic World by Stuart B. Schwartz
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