By Bacon M., Simm R., Redshaw T.

ISBN-10: 0521710669

ISBN-13: 9780521710664

This e-book introduces geophysicists and geologists to the means of reading three-D seismic info. the themes it covers contain easy structural interpretation and map-making; using 3-D visualization equipment; interpretation of seismic amplitudes; the new release and use of AVO and acoustic impedance datasets; and time-lapse seismic mapping. Written through expert geophysicists with a long time of operating event within the oil undefined, the ebook can be essential for graduate scholars, researchers, and new entrants into the petroleum

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28. One pass steep dip 3-D time migration (using time and spatially varying velocity field) 29. Zero-phase conversion by matching to wells 30. Spectral equalisation 31. Bandpass filter 32. Residual scaling Fig. 21 Typical 3-D processing sequence. that was created by the source and converts it to a more compact form. For instance, air guns output a signal with a main peak, followed by a smaller secondary peak due to the re-expansion of the air bubble. Such a source signal is undesirable since every reflection would be followed by a smaller repetition of itself.

Bin B is seeking a trace with larger offset. The bin expansion is greater and has thrown up three possibilities. The trace closest to the bin centre is the one that gets borrowed. Bin C already has a far offset trace and no bin expansion is required. The red trace will end up being used by both bin A and bin D. After binning, the traces are treated as though they came from the centre of the bin though it is normal to retain and use the absolute offset information for later processing. furthest offsets may be non-uniformly distributed with some bins having two or more traces with a similar offset while others have none.

Other considerations such as dominant dip of the subsurface and current strength and direction are also taken into account when designing marine seismic operations. Data are usually shot in the dominant subsurface dip direction (fig. 9) as this is usually the direction with the smallest distance between recorded traces. There may be circumstances such as those illustrated in fig. 10 where strike or another shooting direction is preferred. For some targets, such as those under irregular salt bodies exhibiting large velocity contrast with the surrounding sediments, there may be no single optimum acquisition direction; surveys may have to be shot in several different directions to achieve good results.

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3-D Seismic Interpretation by Bacon M., Simm R., Redshaw T.


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